Summary for 2018
We have had a very active year for Fieldwork with major digs at Priory Park and Warblington plus two smaller excavations at Chilgrove and Franklin Place. We also conducted five geophysics surveys and continued cooperation with the National Trust on their HART program pilot.
Coastal Monitoring – Peter Murphy
In January-April 2018 monitoring continued, though it was slightly truncated by illness. A preliminary inspection of the west shore of Portsmouth Harbour continued at Gosport. The shoreline here included large amounts of rubble with occasional hulks (previously recorded) and WW2 defensive structures, which were plotted into their correct positions. At Medmerry East a series of duplicate radiocarbon samples was collected. These were subsequently submitted to the ETH Lab at Zurich by Peter Marshall (Historic England). Outer rings of a rooted oak tree gave a determination of 2455-2290 cal BC (95% probability) whilst fragments of wattle fencing from Burnt Mound MBE3 dated to 1555-1450 cal BC (91% probability). These results will be discussed fully in a revised version of the paper to be submitted to Sussex Past. At Medmerry West there had not been significant new erosion but a possible new well was noted.
Condition Assessment – Anne de Potier
This project was established in partnership with Chichester Harbour Conservancy over 10 years ago. It involves the annual condition assessment of a variety of heritage features within the Harbour AONB. Regular monitoring over this period provides a valuable record, and can lead to better conservation effort. This is particularly true on Thorney Island which is rich in WWII features. Our regular annual visits were made as usual. All sites are now on the appropriate HER (Historic Environment Record). Vegetation management was carried out early in the year on several sites on Thorney by volunteers co-ordinated by CHC staff. CDAS volunteers also cleared a site there in October, as it would have been too wet for work in early 2019. A local resident had been in touch with James Kenny about an intertidal site he had found near one of our existing shoreline sites north of Bosham. This was visited in October and has potential to be an interesting site at a significant location.
Fittleworth – Steve Cleverly
In February, following past analysis of finds recovered by a landowner over recent years, CDAS organised a week long field walk. This was a joint venture run with members of Worthing Archaeological Society (WAS), where we hoped to recover and add to the Mesolithic flint finds made by the landowner. Despite the cold conditions (the rain mercifully was light), our efforts were rewarded with bags and bags and bags of recovered material. We are due to close our analysis and categorisation of the finds (utilising WAS experience in this area), and produce a report with distribution maps etc. Initial indications are that in one part of the field we have Bronze Age material, whilst further east, we have early Mesolithic material – most likely associated with hunting activities. We then need to consider if we wish to continue field walking the remainder of this site. When the final analysis is complete, a report will be published onto our website.
Oval barrow studies – Steve Cleverly
In support of the Masters/dissertation studies of one of our members, volunteers have undertaken geophysics of barrows attributed to the late Neolithic/early Bronze Age – Oval barrows. In March, permission was given by Historic England (HE) to survey by geophysics two scheduled barrows at Stoughton Down (full report on the website). We were able to conclude and update HE that they are Oval barrows. In August, we surveyed, again by geophysics, three monuments on a farm in Chilgrove. This involved surveying another Oval barrow, a nearby Bronze Age ring ditch, and a further target in the same area, spotted by our member flying his drone – remember the conditions for parch and crop marks was superb during the summer. This last feature is one previously unknown, but the enclosure we surveyed may date to the Neolithic period.
We subsequently put in a 1 metre by 1.5 metre trial trench across its ditch and found two postholes residing within that ditch (see the image on our website). Pottery recovered from one of the postholes, is currently with University College London for assessment. A full report is due to be published onto our website. See also the Chilgrove page
Franklin Place, Chichester – Steve Cleverly
During our 2017 excavation in Priory Park, a member of the public suggested that the society were welcome to come and ‘dig’ his Roman well, to be found in his back garden. It has long been rumoured that Roman period archaeology could be found in the back gardens of Franklin Terrace, however past residents wished to keep these facts private. In October of 2017 a small team carried out a geophysical survey of the garden, and where the owner suggested the ‘well’ may be found, a circular image was to be seen in the geophysics results. Subsequently in October this year, a small trench was placed over the circular feature. The chances of finding any Roman remains were recognised as slight, the location of our ‘well’ would have been post the Roman defensive ditch. Our day’s efforts indeed proved fruitless when our trench offered up nothing but multiple layers of soil, probably the result of landscaping and levelling, and our finds, modern. A full report is due to be published onto our website.
Idsworth - Trevor Davies
In conjunction with Liss Archaeological Group, CDAS surveyed the field surrounding St Hubert’s church, Idsworth to search for the Deserted Medieval Village with which it is associated. The first campaign lasted for a week in November 2017. This showed that there were ditches and pits surrounding the church and running underneath it. The remainder of the survey was completed during a week in March 2018. This revealed a rectangular enclosure to the south of the field and responses along the course of the Lavant stream that we have tentatively interpreted as water meadows. Informal field walking produced quantities of Iron Age, Roman, Saxo-Norman and Medieval finds. While we found much of interest, we found no evidence for a Deserted Medieval village – the search continues!
Priory Park - James Kenny
In partnership with Chichester District Council, CDAS again excavated the Roman bathhouse discovered in 2017. A substantial part of the hypocaust was revealed, showing clearly how the bathhouse was constructed. Our excavation also revealed how it was robbed – almost all the difficult to make bipedalis bricks had been carefully removed. This excavation was notable because of the heat in July. There is a plan (still to be confirmed) to excavate again on this site in 2019, but in May. See also the Priory Park 2018 page
Warblington - Trevor Davies
The 2018 excavation at Warblington had as its prime objective the full examination of the building we have thought of as the bathhouse. We had excavated parts of it in 2016 and 2017. Our intention was to expose the whole structure; understand both how the elements related to each other and to date it. In the course of this excavation we processed over a tonne of CBM (ceramic building material) – almost double the amount we processed in 2017. See also the Warblington 2018 page
Petworth - Trevor Davies
Following the CDAS survey of the gardens north of the house in 2017, we were asked by the National Trust to extend the survey north to the area surrounding the Doric Temple. Using both resistivity and magnetometry, we found clear evidence of paths. We are also speculating that we have discovered the remains of an open air theatre. In particular, this survey demonstrated that we have re-learnt the techniques for operating the magnetometer and interpreting the results.
Kingley Vale - Mike Kallaway
We have been trying to find the third Auxiliary Unit WW2 hideout in Kingley Vale for some time. A number of forays were made into the woodland including one where we were joined by John Wells a local historian. So far we have not managed to find the hideout. However, we were more successful at finding unexploded ordnance and reported two 3” mortar bombs for disposal.
Thorney Island – Mark Seaman, Mike Kallaway and Brian Tomkinson
In the spring we ground-proofed some LiDAR features indicating ancient field systems on the aerodrome and to the south of West Thorney village. Some proved difficult to verify but we did confirm a medieval strip farm system to the south of the village. On the same trip we also confirmed the location of the WW2 flying boat slipway on the south eastern shore. More recently we confirmed that there are the remains of a ridge and furrow farming system to the north of pillbox CH013 near the western shore.
Summary for 2017
The weather in the first half of the year severely limited the opportunities for Geophys; however, this autumn we have more than made up for it. For the first year ever we ran two major digs one at Priory Park and the other at Warblington. As always Coastal monitoring keeps going regardless of the weather. My thanks to the project co-ordinators for the following updates:
Aldwick Village Green – Mike Kallaway
In March we conducted a resistivity survey of Aldwick Village Green, the site of a former Napoleonic Barracks. The survey had been requested by Ken Hiscock Chairman of the Aldwick Village Green Conservation Society together with Carl Smith of Arun District Council. The survey revealed some evidence of the barrack huts that were on the site from around 1803 to 1812. Further research on British Military standards for these huts allowed us to speculate on a full layout for the Barracks. A full report has been published. A presentation was made to the Aldwick Village Green Conservation Society in late October and was well received. The Society made a £300 donation to CDAS for which we are very grateful.
Coastal Monitoring – Peter Murphy
In 2017 the CDAS team re-examined the east coast of Langstone Harbour and also continued with re-inspection of Chichester Harbour, focusing on Bosham and Chidham. At Chidham the previously known wreck of a 19th century barge was planned and a 3D image was produced by Hugh Fiske (see CiTIZAN website). Medmerry West was also visited again but nothing new was seen. We have not had really severe storms lately, but more new archaeology is expected to be exposed there eventually. We must just be patient: intertidal archaeology ‘twas ever thus. Otherwise, though these were pleasant walks, nothing new was contributed to the archaeological record. For this reason, survey will be extended westwards to Portsmouth Harbour (a less well-examined coastline), with surveys on 15th November (west of Portchester Castle) and 13th December (north of the Explosion Museum) in collaboration with CiTIZAN, to fit with their future grant applications and potential projects.
The radiocarbon samples from Medmerry Breach East unfortunately deteriorated during storage by CiTIZAN. This will necessitate collection of duplicate samples from: the outer rings of a tree root system in pre-Holocene sediments which will help to constrain the date for the local marine transgression; and round-wood from a fence-line crossing one of the burnt mounds – to establish whether it is contemporary with Saxon to earlier medieval fish traps excavated inland, or to early modern fish traps recorded from the shore. Once these determinations are received it will be possible to bring the report on Medmerry to a final (but pre-edited) draft for submission to Sussex Archaeological Collections. See also the Medmerry Coastal Monitoring page
Condition Assessment – Anne de Potier
This project was established in partnership with Chichester Harbour Conservancy over 10 years ago. It involves the annual condition assessment of a variety of heritage features within the Harbour AONB. Regular monitoring over this period provides a valuable record, and can lead to better conservation effort. This is particularly true on Thorney Island which is rich in WWII features. More were added to the catalogue this year; they are being researched before being added to the HER. Vegetation management is regularly carried out on all relevant sites on Thorney by volunteers co-ordinated by CHC staff. Management advice is also sought from the Defence Infrastructure Organisation archaeologists where needed, currently about a gun emplacement on the east coast.
Fittleworth – Steve Cleverly
A landowner in Fittleworth has regularly been picking up prehistoric flints off his land – the majority so far processed, being from the Mesolithic period. CDAS are currently working with Worthing Archaeological Society (WAS), whose members have more flint handling experience, to access the rest of the collection not yet reviewed and categorised. We are actively working towards a joint (CDAS and WAS) society field walk of the area to identify any possible hotspots and recover further such material. Watch for further news in the New Year.
Goodwood Estate – Steve Cleverly
Following a discovery of pottery finds, mainly Roman grey ware, background research found their retrieval came from a location close to a suspected late prehistoric/Roman settlement. Working with the Estate, a small area was surveyed (resistivity) and initial results support the judgement of a settlement in that area. CDAS will continue to work with the Estate to arrange further survey opportunities.
Idsworth – Trevor Davies
Through personal contacts, we were able to survey a field in Idsworth as a start to finding the deserted Medieval Village that must have once surrounded the church. We found some possible plot boundaries and we were able to trace the entrances to Idsworth House in its various guises before and after it was demolished in the mid-19 th century. Our work there has allowed us to approach the local farmer with a positive proposal to survey the next door field where the church sits. In conjunction with Liss, we are planning a survey for the end of November.
Petworth – Trevor Davies
At the end of October we undertook a Geophys (mag and res) survey of an area of the gardens bordering the house in an attempt to identify the layout of earlier gardens.
Priory Park – James Kenny
In partnership with Chichester and District Council CDAS undertook a two week dig in Priory Park Chichester, which revealed the western end of a bath house. An unexpectedly large volume of Ceramic Building Material (CBM) was processed. The central location enabled a large number of residents and visitors to monitor progress. This was extensively reported on in the news media. We hope that there might be an opportunity to return next year. See also the Priory Park 2017 page
Warblington – Trevor Davies
In spite of some quite dramatic weather, at one point one of the gazebos took flight, we made some interesting discoveries including the identification of a probable bath house. In this case 590Kg of CBM was processed. Next Spring one of the Wednesday talks will review what we have uncovered starting with the first geophys survey that clearly showed a villa. See also the Warblington 2017 page
Summary for 2016
Several members now have the skills to access the Environment Agency LiDAR data and this is fundamentally changing our approach to fieldwork and desk based research. Also we now have the skills to make use of GIS mapping techniques to record results.
A combination of wet weather and poor conditions underfoot meant that we did not get out until June. However, Coastal monitoring can and does keep going regardless of the weather.
Coastal monitoring – Peter Murphy
Coastal monitoring and fieldwork was, again, focused on the Medmerry area, where coastal erosion is most rapid. However, fieldwork also included the eastern and western shores of Thorney Island with limited investigations on the shoreline at Tournerbury. The west side of Thorney produced several new sites, including an undated gravel causeway, perhaps part of a haven similar to the one at Stanbury Point, and several scatters of later prehistoric ceramics and lithics. It was, however, at Medmerry that the most impressive results were obtained. Gales in early 2016 exposed, and then quickly destroyed flint and brick walls of Thorney Farm. A pacey intervention by CDAS members enabled us to plan and photograph the remains, whilst Hugh Fiske was able to capture data for a 3D rotatable model viewable on the Medmerry page.
The farm was certainly there by around 1810, on map evidence, but had been lost beneath the shingle bank by 1914. Only now is it gradually reappearing as the bank shifts shorewards. Other features included two wells – one lined with chalk blocks, the other with planks and brick – which probably still survive, though are now buried under sand. Surprisingly, two wooden post, brace and wattle structures have proved to be very recalcitrant to erosion. They have been progressively recorded as new elements become visible; two radiocarbon dates in the overall range 1450-1670 Cal AD, most probably around 1600 have been received. Other finds include the base of a 19th century sluice gate, drainage ditches and structures and munitions associated with the coastal crust defences of 1940 and the air-to-ground gunnery range
Our work in 2015-16 has produced results which have been published in the Environment Agency’s report on ‘Monitoring at Medmerry’, in CITiZAN’s ‘Chichester Harbour Salt Working Project’ and the guided walk leaflet covering the area around Prinsted. A presentation on Medmerry was given a Bristol in October at the CITiZAN ‘Turn the Tide’ conference. A full archaeological report for publication on our results from Medmerry is currently in preparation.
Condition Assessment – Anne de Potier
10 years ago this project was established in partnership with Chichester Harbour Conservancy. It involves the annual condition assessment of a variety of heritage features within the Harbour AONB. Regular monitoring over this period provides a valuable record. Thorney Island is particularly rich in WWII features. It is very rewarding to see that the sites having become increasingly overgrown are now being regularly cleared thanks to the Friends of Chichester Harbour and other volunteers.
Milland – Trevor Davies
In August we had the opportunity to geophys a field that borders the roman road running through Milland. The results taken alongside other archaeological investigations in the same area indicate that there might have been occupation in the area prior to the construction of the Roman road and the mansio because the line of the road appears to have been diverted round the existing feature.
Priory Park - Trevor Davies- see the Priory Park 2016 page
Warblington Excavation - Trevor Davies- see the Warblington Excavation 2016 page.
Summary for 2015
CDAS members continued to be involved in the Secrets of the High Woods (South Downs National Park) and the Petworth (National Trust) projects.
Historic England undertook a Ground Penetrating Radar survey of the Warblington field in order to test some prototype equipment. The results were fascinating and raise yet more questions about this site that we will need to investigate.
In terms of CDAS projects site updates are given below:
Coastal Monitoring: The newly established Coastal Monitoring team got into its stride with regular visits to east & west of the breach at Medmerry as well as preliminary visits to areas in Chichester Harbour and on West Hayling. See our website for a 3D image of one of the features found at Medmerry. HUGH CAN WE MAKE REFERENCE TO THE PAGE ON THE WEB SITE HERE. CDAS is working with the recently established CiTIZAN project, whose staff ran a memorable (exceptionally wet) training course for CDAS members in August.
Ratham Mill: The Geophys team undertook a resistivity survey across areas both sides of the stream and a mag survey for one field. Only a limited number of possible features were identified. However, our results slot into those from an earlier survey a bit further to the west and provide further context for the Romano British Temple. A large piece of Dressel 20 (amphora from Spain that would probably have held olive oil) was found on the stream bed.
Graffham Common: The Topographical team continued surveying the earthworks which range from Prehistoric to WWII. The drawing-up takes much longer than the fieldwork so it will be sometime before the results will be available.
Chichester Harbour AONB: The annual condition assessment of WWII features was undertaken at Thorney; it is very rewarding to see that the sites are now being regularly cleared thanks to the Friends of Chichester Harbour and other volunteers.
Prebendal Playing Fields: There was a small excavation with the aim of investigating a grey shadow that was thrown up by the earlier geophys. Sadly this turned out to be no more than a relatively modern trackway rather than the Roman ditch for which we had been hoping. A side benefit was that the school saw it as a PR opportunity and a press release, which made reference to CDAS, appeared in various media.
Warblington: The excavation was enthusiastically supported and members seemed to enjoy themselves. Forty nine members were involved - about a third of our membership; it was particularly pleasing that many volunteers were new and some very new to the society. We clocked up around 220 man-days, which were up by about a 1/3 on the previous year.
The heavy rain at the start of the second week meant that we were unable to take any vehicle other than Hugh Fiske’s 4x4 onto the site. The problem that faced us was the transportation of all the equipment, finds, event-centres and personal possessions across two quite large fields at the start and end of each day. Without Hugh things would have been extremely difficult even with all the additional wheelbarrows brought in by volunteers. A big thank you to Hugh.
In the past, when identifying locations for our trenches we have selected areas where the features are fairly clear even if we don’t know what they are. This time we included a fuzzy dark patch alongside the western end of the rectangular building we dug last year. It turned out that the geophys results were fuzzy because there were significant volumes of Roman Ceramic Building Material (CBM) and stone spread across the underlying archaeology.
A lot of people enthusiastically digging an area containing a large amount of building material resulted in us processing over a 1/3 of a ton (386 Kg) of CBM – we have not yet weighed the stone. To process this volume we had to borrow extra tables, trays, bowls, scrubbing brushes and crates as well as buying more cable ties (for labelling the crates). Additional volunteers had to be recruited from the trenches to assist with the processing and with their help we managed to keep up.
There were some interesting results both in terms of features, such as post holes and a possible hypocaust and finds that included painted wall plaster, painted glass and coins. Follow this link for more information on the 2015 dig complete with interactive 3D models of the site.
A more formal update will be provided once we have had a chance to assess what was found.
Saltmarsh Lane, Hayling: A Hayling resident was keen that CDAS undertook a resistivity survey. It was not far from the location of a Roman Finds spot so looked promising. Sadly nothing was revealed.
Medmerry: Unfortunately, a Geophys resistivity survey had to be abandoned halfway through due to the heavy rain (the kit does not do rain). We have agreed with the farmer that we can return; hopefully next summer after his crop has been harvested.
Summary for 2014
Over the last 12 months CDAS has undertaken in the order of 350 “person-days” of fieldwork including geophys surveys, our excavation at Warblington and, new ventures for CDAS, coastal monitoring & auguring. Site updates are given below. Changes in farming practice mean it is unlikely that we will undertake any field walking in the foreseeable future but we are always on the lookout for opportunities.
Chichester Harbour AONB – East: Annual Condition Assessment monitoring visit.
Graffham: Not much opportunity for topographical surveying at Graffham in 2014, apart from checking a few of the drawings from the 2013 surveys. We are waiting for the contractors to clear the northwest part of the site, and we will then get in and continue the survey – probably in March 2015.
Medmerry: Visits to the area of the breach last winter identified quite how much archaeology was being revealed by major changes in the profile of the beach. Though notes were taken this was in an ad hoc fashion. The Coastal Monitoring team is now established and 2 processes agreed. The first formal visits have been completed at Medmerry east and west of the breach. Burnt flint mounds, shrimp/eel baskets, and a line of posts & wattle are some of the objects recorded. One visit included some auguring. The plan is to slot in special trips during periods of stormy weather as well as routine visits. There are plans to extend the monitoring to the western shore of Hayling Island.
Petworth: Tom Dommett first presented his ambitious plans to the CDAS AGM two years ago. This April CDAS undertook a resistivity survey of the area to the south of the 6th Duke’s stables. We found more of the stables, and evidence of an enormous formal garden feature which was not shown on any records or plans. Since then CDAS members have helped with other resistivity surveys and an excavation on a significant post medieval structure.
Prebendal School Playing Fields: We undertook a resistivity survey of the playing fields in search of the ditch believed to be outside the Chichester City Walls. Good trace found, but it is not clear if it is a ditch or a track. We have to dig to find out and we are negotiating permission for the excavation of a trial trench.
Thorney Island: The wetness of the ground prevented the annual condition assessment; one will be scheduled for early spring. It is hoped to undertake further geophys if appropriate targets can be identified.
Warblington: This was highly successful two week excavation supported by the Chichester Harbour Conservancy and with the approval of Havant Borough Council. We are very grateful to James Kenny for taking holiday from his day job to direct these excavations as a member of CDAS. This year we looked at a rectangular building and found evidence that although plough damaged, it was of much higher status than we expected – voussoir flue tiles; bessales to construct pilae (for underfloor heating); nails and tiles with holes for the roof; careful flint masonry and some flints that had been faced. The plan to undertake some auguring to the east of the site had to be abandoned as the ground proved unsuitable. We are hoping to go back to Warblington next year.
West Wittering: As a first for the society we prepared a teaching pack for the local school making use of the finds from our excavation in June 2013. This was formally handed over in October and completes the West Wittering project.
Westerlands Farm: Aerial photos indicated the possible presence of an enclosure at the top of the South Downs. We surveyed with both resistivity and magnetometry equipment as well as taking the opportunity offered by a small area of ploughing to undertake an informal field walk. The survey results were very successful and the pottery finds from the field walking indicated that the site had been occupied over at least 650 and possibly 1000 years.